María Luisa López-Vidriero

Mujer, libro y lectura

 Case study 2: Spain, Seville and Madrid – The formation of new libraries

Strictly speaking, it was over the last four decades of the eighteenth century that the abolition of religious orders and the suppression of their houses impacted on Spanish libraries. Subsequently, the great political upheavals of the nineteenth century, caused in particular by the confrontation between constitutional liberalism and absolutist conservatism, as well as by the Carlist Wars, had a direct effect on the religious orders in Spain, which  experienced both suppression and restoration.  In 1835 and 1836, the Desamortización Eclesiástica,  or Nationalization of Church Property under the  prime minister ship of Juan Álvarez Mendizábal  (1790–1853), a progressive who briefly held  office during the three-year liberal interlude  of Ferdinand VII’s reign was, in fact, only the  best-known of a long series of expropriations of  ecclesiastical land and property that had begun  in the eighteenth century and would continue  throughout the nineteenth and into the twentieth  1 A series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the  period 1833–1876.  century. It was, for instance, followed by further confiscations under other progressive ministers Joaquín Fernández-Espartero (1793–1879) in 1841, and then under Pascual Madoz (1806–1870) in 1855. This was a gradual process which can be  divided into three stages differentiated by the  sort of property that was seized and put up for  sale: 1767–1836, from Charles III (1716–1788) to  Mendizábal, confiscation of estates associated with  the Church and of the property of ecclesiastical  institutions that had been suppressed; 1836–1841,  from Mendizábal to Espartero, confiscation  of property of the regular and secular clergy;  1855–1924, from Madoz to Primo de Rivera  (1870–1930), confiscation of any remaining  ecclesiastical, and also the sale of State-owned,  property.  These expropriations formed part of a policy of transferring property ownership with a view to  increasing the nation’s wealth and, in the short and  medium terms, to securing a windfall that would  reduce public debt. The seizure and auctioning of  property said in Spanish to be “en manos muertas”,  that is, until then, legally inalienable possessions  of the Church and the religious orders which  held it in perpetuity, was officially decreed to be  permissible by law. These decrees had the purpose  of financing the liberal government. 

En esta conferencia, celebrada en la Universidad de Oxford en 2012, este caso de estudio se encuadró en la Parte I: El mapa territorial y temporal de las colecciones canceladas, en el que se presentaron los trabajos siguientes:

Fiorenzo Landi (University of Bologna) – The dissolution of monasteries and convents in Europe. An overview of the economic implications
Richard Sharpe († University of Oxford) – Dissolution and dispersion in sixteenth-century England: understanding the remains
Rudolf Gamper (Vadianischen Sammlung St. Gallen) – Klosteraufhebungen und das Schicksal ihrer Bibliotheken in der Deutschschweiz
Jeffrey Garrett (formerly Northwestern University) – The expropriation of monastic libraries in German-speaking Europe, 1773–1817
Javier Antón Pelayo (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona) – The Secularization of Spanish religious libraries (1767-1836): The Catalan case
Luís Cabral (formerly Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto) – Case study 1: Portugal, Porto – State policy concerning the dissolution of monastic book collections in Portugal, especially during the nineteenth century
María Luisa Lopez Vidriero (formerly Royal Library of Madrid) – Case study 2: Spain, Seville and Madrid – The formation of new libraries
Pedro Rueda Ramírez (University of Barcelona) – The secularization of religious houses in Latin America from independence to the new republics: the continuity and fragmentation of library collections

Está publicado en

How the Secularization of Religious Houses Transformed the Libraries of Europe, 16th-19th Centuries. Cristina Dondi , Dorit Raines , Richard Sharpe † (eds). Brepols, vol.63

The closure of religious houses, in varying circumstances, affected all of Europe at some point between the sixteenth and nineteenth century. At different times and in different countries the consequences were widely varied, in some cases preserving medieval and early modern collections intact, in others abandoning books to their fate, or transferring them piecemeal into new ownership to serve different cultural purposes. Integral preservation or dispersal may each be viewed in positive or negative terms. For religious and political history there are many, and bigger, factors involved, and the effects of secularization worked on many things beside libraries and books. None the less, by focusing on books and libraries through these changes a particular narrative emerges of great cultural importance. It is the most important book-historical story for the survival and accessibility of Europe’s heritage of the written word, one that interacts with major historical themes and still connects with future issues for the continuing role of books and libraries in the European heritage.

A conference held in Oxford in 2012 brought together thirty experts in different aspects of this process or with knowledge of its impact in different countries and at different periods. The result was to bring together and share for the first time the similar and different experiences of different European countries, from Portugal and Spain in the west to Poland and Ukraine in the east, from Finland and Sweden in the north to Naples in the south, with ramifications stretching to North and South America. While reading this volume of collected essays, the reader may notice a disparity in the evidence that each author has been able to bring to bear upon their subject. Provenance research is well advanced in some territories, less so in others. In the decade since the conference and this publication, there have been some attempts to bridge certain gaps. But in general, there has been little new work in the years since the conference took place. The editors anticipate that this publication will stimulate further research, bridging some of the gaps visible in the evidence presented in this volume. Multiple avenues for further investigation open up, indeed, in historical and cultural studies, such as the impact of the secularization on nonreligious libraries, and the change in attitude with respect to certain disciplines and even to erudition itself.

Madame de Genlis revisa sus propuestas didácticas

Los estudios sobre pedagogía y formación curricular de la figura real en el siglo xviii son prioritarios en mi trayectoria investigadora; son estudios siempre abiertos y en curso que me obligan, como también lo han hecho en esta ocasión, a considerar bajo otro punto de vista las hipótesis de partida con los que los emprendo a medida que progreso en mi investigación.

Madame de Genlis revisa sus propuestas didácticas necesita ahora un matiz imprescindible, el derivado del uso principesco y cortesano de su obra en el ámbito borbónico español, en ese mismo periodo. La significativa aportación a la reforma pedagógica de Genlis, sobre la que ella seguía interrogando en el último cuarto de su vida, tuvo, sin embargo, una representación curricular política, exenta de cualquier interés didáctico entre los infantes y el Príncipe de Asturias. Para los hijos de Carlos IV, Fernando, Carlos María Isidro y Francisco de Paula de Borbón, Infantes de España, la presencia de una figura central de la educación áulica en ese periodo obedecía entre sus libros a otras motivaciones. Todo coincidía en los mismos años, entre 1808 y 1814, y en el mismo país: entre Valençay y París y esta convergencia, entre política y pedagogía, tiene el enorme interés de ser un ejemplo del polimorfismo del escrito. Genlis había educado a los príncipes de Orléans, hijos del duque de Chartres, y en particular del futuro Louis-Philippe. En 1782, había sido nombrada preceptora de los príncipes de Orléans : Louis-Philippe, duque de Valois quien, desde la muerte de su abuelo Louis-Philippe-Joseph en 1785, duque de Chartres (1773-1850) y tras la muerte de su padre, Philippe-Égalité, guillotinado en 1793, duque de Orléans ; Antoine-Philippe, duque de Montpensier (1775-1807) ; Louis-Charles, conde de Beaujolais (1779-1808) ; Eugène-Adélaïde-Louise (1777-1847), Mademoiselle d’Orléans a partir de la muerte de su hermana gemela en 1782. Esta experiencia la reflejará en 1791 en los dos tomos de Leçons d’une gouvernante ou Fragmens d’un Journal, qui a servi pour l’Education des Enfans de Monsieur d’Orléans cuando la duquesa prescinda de sus servicios. El cambio de modelo pedagógico que supuso el nombramiento de Genlis es trascendental porque se trató de un cambio de género que obligó a utilizar una nueva palabra, “gouvernante”.

Esta investigación se presentó en el Seminario Infancias. Representaciones y prácticas cotidianas en la ciudad (1700-1939) celebrado en la UNED, 24-25 noviembre 2022, bajo la dirección de Gemma Cobo

Acceso al video de la conferencia

https://canal.uned.es/series/63297a206f3c0026016ffb83

Da concavo a convesso: portare in superficie la singolarità bodoniana di un collezionismo nascosto

I libri dell’Infante Antonio Pascual de Borbón entrarono a far parte della Biblioteca Reale Privata alla sua morte nel 1817. Oggi il catalogo elettronico della Biblioteca Reale, Ibis, permette di localizzare le copie che gli appartenevano e che sono identificate dagli ex-libris e dai super libros con le cifre dell’infante, grazie alla codifica del blocco delle note (provenienza) e del nome nel blocco dei legami all’intestazione

Il catalogo permette quindi di accedere a una collezione storica, una delle tante che compongono una biblioteca reale. Tuttavia, individualizzare la proprietà degli esemplari non significa differenziare, con una propria dimensione e singolarità, ciò che in realtà è: una collezione speciale, rappresentativa di un pregiato collezionismo reale nell’ambito del profilo dei Borboni spagnoli.

La rarità dei libri di Antonio Pascual de Borbón che oggi fanno parte della Biblioteca Reale oltrepassa la sua origine: essi furono selezionati dall’infante stesso nel suo testamento del 1817 per Ferdinando VII, suo nipote il re. Vale a dire, questo fondo bibliografico è ciò che un principe considerava fosse suscettibile nella sua libreria di cambiare il grado per diventare parte della biblioteca privata del re. La prima caratteristica eccezionale e la sua singolarità risiedono nel fatto che esprimono la percezione interna di un concetto simbolico – la biblioteca del re – differenziato dal collezionismo privato.

A causa di questo fatto concettualmente rilevante, la semplice identificazione degli esemplari che è quello che permette il catalogo IBIS è riduttiva e priva di significato.

Investigación presentada en la Jornada de Estudio dirigida por el prof. Lorenzo Baldacchini :

Le collezioni speciali: esperienze ed orizzonti

Giornata di studio. Roma, Biblioteca Nazionale, 14 ottobre 2022

Programma

Saluti delle autorità (Direttore Biblioteca Nazionale, Presidente AIB nazionale/regionale)

Lorenzo Baldacchini, Introduzione

Fiammetta Sabba, La valorizzazione dei fondi librari per il “cultural public engagement” nella cornice della convenzione di Faro

Alberto Petrucciani, Catalogare per i cataloghi generali, catalogare per gli specialisti

Lucia Sardo, Il trattamento catalografico dei fondi personali

Chiara De Vecchis – Francesca Ghersetti, La valorizzazione del patrimonio nell’ottica della public history: spunti e buone pratiche

Maria Luisa Lopez Vidriero Abello, Da concavo a convesso: come portare in superficie la singolarità bodoniana di un collezionismo nascosto

Mattea Gazzola, La città visibile. Le collezioni speciali della Biblioteca Bertoliana, riflesso degli interessi culturali di Vicenza

Les meubles de la connaissance: façons de devenir sage a prix fixe

Le 3 avril 1773, à huit heures du matin, Barletti de Saint Paul se présentait
au palais royal de Madrid pour proposer au à la cour du roi Charles III un
Cabinet littéraire pour le Prince des Asturies, Carlos Antonio, futur Charles
IV. La grande bibliothèque qu’il montrait, réunissait -disait-il- tout ce qui
pourrait faciliter les études de l’héritier du trône d’Espagne.
Dans les appartements de l’Infante, Barletti avait disposé de trois quarts d’heures pour s’expliquer et composer une phrase mémorable: «Aux meilleurs des rois, j’offre le fruit de vingt-deux ans de mes fatigues». Carlos Antonio, selon Barletti,
confessa qu’il n’avait encore rien vu d’aussi neuf et d’aussi intéressant. Cette audience au palais était un fait inouï tenant compte du personnage, un rescapé de La Bastille, avec un passé turbulant. Mais Barletti de Saint Paul, ce 3 avril, se présentait au Prince comme professeur d’une institution d’élite, emblème de la pédagogie éclairée que Charles III voulait développer, l’École d’Artillerie de Ségovie ou il enseignait le français.

La lectura incunable de don Antonio Pascual de Borbón

Entre los años 1815 y 1816 se abre un expediente para averiguar el paradero de dos cajones de libros impresos en el siglo XV del infante don Antonio Pascual. Habían salido de Madrid en 1813 para reunirse con su propietario en el castillo de Valençay. Cinco años atrás, el 3 de mayo de 1808, Antonio Pascual, hermano menor de Carlos IV y último miembro de la familia real en abandonar la corte, se había despedido de la Junta Suprema en dirección a un exilio familiar dorado en el castillo del príncipe Tayllerand, su excepcional anfitrión y cancerbero, con un “Dios me la dé buena. Adiós, señores, hasta el valle de Josafat” . Los impresos perdidos en la aduana de Bayona, en 1813, eran exclusivamente incunables, ciento once;
un fondo muy significativo para una librería privada y que, de entrada, explicaba que Fernando VII pusiese en marcha la maquinaria administrativa que permitiera localizar los incunables de su tío.

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